The SharePoint search architecture contains search components and database. There are essentially four types of search databases:
- Crawl database
- Link database
- Analytics reporting database
- Search administration database
This database stores historical information and tracking information of crawled items. It stores crawl metrics such as last crawl ID,types of update during last crawl,last crawl time,etc.
Information stored by the content processing component is stored in the link database. The database stores information about search clicks i.e.the number of times people click on a search result. The information is stored unprocessed to be analyzed by the analytics processing component.
The results of usage analytics is stored by the analytics reporting database.Further, it also stores statistics information from the analyses. This information is used by SharePoint Server to create Excel reports that showcase different statistics.
Search administration database
Search configuration data like crawl rules,query rules,topology and the mappings between crawled and managed properties is stored in search administration database. Further, it also stores the access control list (ACL) for the crawl component. Only one search administration database can be there per search service application.
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